What is SAML and How SAML Authentication Works (2023)

Discover the advantages of SAML, explore its functionality, and determine if it is the right fit for your business.

What is SAML

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an XML-based standard protocol for exchanging authentication data between two parties. SAML is designed to enable Single Sign- On (SSO) across different applications and systems that belong to the same organization or consortium. SAML allows a user to log in once and then access multiple applications or services without having to log in again for each application or service, this is exactly SSO.

SAML is based on the concept of a trust relationship between the identity provider (IdP) and the service provider (SP). The IdP is responsible for authenticating the user and providing the necessary identity information in the form of SAML assertions to the SP. SP uses the SAML assertions to grant or deny access to resources.

SAML is famous in enterprise environments, online service providers and government agencies. It is most popula SSO protocols. The SAML standard is maintained by the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS), and it is continually evolving to meet the changing security and privacy requirements of modern internet based applications.

Benefits of SAML

  1. Secure:SAML allows for secure transfer of authentication and authorization data between parties and make sure that user identity and access information is confidential. SAML is designed by keeping in mind security requirement of enterprises and regulated industry, that’s why it’s highly secure protocol.
  2. SSO:Using SAML organizations can implement SSO for their multiple applications means users can access multiple web applications and services without login multiple time. it solves the problems of multiple credentials for multiple applications which belongs to one organizations.
  3. Scalability:SAML supports a wide range of authentication and authorization scenarios and use cases. This makes SAML highly scalable and adaptable to variety of business requirements. It can fit in most of the industry with it’s flexibility and security.
  4. Interoperability:SAML is a popular SSO Protocol which means it can be used with different vendor’s applications and systems. It’s specificiations are well defined and give great flexibility without doing customization to it, that’s make sure that cross oganizations applications are compatible with each other.
  5. Save cost:SAML reduce cost of managing user’s authnetications and access to multiple applications and services, Login once reduce processsing of number of authentications on multiple applications.
  6. Enhanced User Experience:SSO always make user experience better, if organization have multiple applications and if user doesn’t require to singup as well login multiple time.
  7. Compliance:SAML is well designed for enterprises requirements, it has all security and privacy scenerios which make it’s compliant protocol.

SAML terminology

  1. Identity Provider (IdP):Identity Provider is authenticate users and generte SAML assertions that contain data about user identity and access related.
  2. Service Provider (SP):Service provider is application that users want to access after successfull authentication by Identity Provider. Service Provider accept SAML assertion sent by Identity Provider.
  3. SAML Assertion:A SAML assertion is an XML document that contains data of user’s identity (ID and Atrributes) and access, also metadata of the assertion itself, such as its validity period, public key and the IdP that issued it.
  4. SAML Protocol:A set of rules and methods for exchanging SAML assertions between the Identity provider and the Service Provider. In January 2001, OASIS Security Services Technical Committee (SSTC) convened for the first time with mandate of creating an XML framework to facilitate the exchange of authentication and authorization information.
  5. Attribute:An attribute is a use profile related fields, such as name, email address, or group. It is paert of a SAML assertion. Attributes are used by the SP to identify identify user and provide access according to it.
  6. NameID:A NameID is a unique identifier that is assigned to a user by the IdP and included in a SAML assertion. NameID is used by the SP to identify the user across different applications.
  7. Metadata:Metadata is information about a identity Provider or Service Provider, SP require IdP’s meta data and IdP require SP’s metadata to establish trust between both. Metadata includes information about the SP or IdP’s endpoints (assertion consumer service URL, SLO URL etc.), certificate, audience and other relevant details.
  8. Subject:Subject refers to user on whose behalf the SAML assertion has been generated, it contains NameID XML tag also.
  9. Single Logout (SLO):A process that enables a user to log out of all web applications or services that use SAML authentication with a single action.
  10. Binding:Method for transmitting SAML messages between an IdP and an SP, such as HTTP Redirect, HTTP POST, or SOAP.

SAML flows

Here is The general steps of creating a SAML assertion and consumption involves the following steps:

  1. User Attempt to Access Restriucted Resources:User attempts to access a service provider (SP) application that requires authentication. SP redirects the user to the Identity Provider (IDP) for authentication.
  2. IdP Authentication:IdP authenticates the user in this step if user’s session doesn’t exist. IdP can authanticate using a various methods example username and password, two-factor authentication, or smart card authentication.
  3. Assertion Creation:Once the user is authenticated, IdP creates a SAML assertion that contains data about user and authentication status. IdP Sign the assertion using IdP Proivate key to ensure its authenticity and integrity.
  4. Assertion Delivery:IdP sends the SAML assertion to the SP via the user’s browser, using either the HTTP POST or HTTP Redirect binding. IdP Sends assertion in XML format.
  5. Assertion Validation:SP receives the SAML assertion and validates it by verifying the signature, checking the expiration date, and verifying that the assertion is intended for the SP.
  6. Attribute Extraction:Once the SAML assertion is validated, SP extracts user attributes such as name, email, and group.
  7. Session Creation:SP creates a session for user, allowing user to access SP application. There are two types flows in SAML, these are IdP-Intiaited and SP-Initiated flows.

IdP initiated

SAML IdP-initiated flow is a scenario where the user is first authenticated by the Identity Provider (IDP) and then redirected to a Service Provider (SP) application without the user having to initiate the request. The process involves the following steps:

  1. IdP Authentication:User try to access the specific SP application, IdP authenticates the user in this step if user’s session doesn’t exist. IdP can authanticate using a various methods example username and password, two-factor authentication, or smart card authentication.
  2. Assertion Creation:Once the user is authenticated, IdP creates a SAML assertion that contains data about user and authentication status. IdP Sign the assertion using IdP Proivate key to ensure its authenticity and integrity.
  3. Assertion Delivery:IdP sends the SAML assertion to the SP via the user’s browser, using either the HTTP POST or HTTP Redirect binding. IdP Sends assertion in XML format.
  4. Assertion Validation:SP receives the SAML assertion and validates it by verifying the signature, checking the expiration date, and verifying that the assertion is intended for the SP.
  5. Attribute Extraction:Once the SAML assertion is validated, SP extracts user attributes such as name, email, and group.
  6. Session Creation:SP creates a session for user, allowing user to access SP application. In the IdP-initiated flow, the user is first authenticated by IdP, and request is initiated by the IdP, which then sends SAML assertion to SP. This flow is typically used in situations where user is on IdP portal and use want to access SP directly.
What is SAML and How SAML Authentication Works (1)

SP-Intiated

SAML SP-initiated flow is a scenario where user initiates the request to access a Service Provider (SP) application and is then redirected to the Identity Provider (IDP) for authentication. The process involves the following steps:

  1. User Attempt to Access Restriucted Resources:User attempts to access a service provider (SP) application that requires authentication.
  2. SP Request:The SP determines that user needs to be authenticated and sends a SAML request to the IdP, requesting user’s authentication and authorization information,.
  3. SP Request validation:IdP receives the SAML request and validate and verify by signature.
  4. IdP Authentication:IdP authenticates the user in this step if user’s session doesn’t exist. IdP can authanticate using a various methods example username and password, two-factor authentication, or smart card authentication.
  5. Assertion Creation:Once the user is authenticated, IdP creates a SAML assertion that contains data about user and authentication status. IdP Sign the assertion using IdP Proivate key to ensure its authenticity and integrity.
  6. Assertion Delivery:IdP sends the SAML assertion to the SP via the user’s browser, using either the HTTP POST or HTTP Redirect binding. IdP Sends assertion in XML format.
  7. Assertion Validation:SP receives the SAML assertion and validates it by verifying the signature, checking the expiration date, and verifying that the assertion is intended for the SP.
  8. Attribute Extraction:Once the SAML assertion is validated, SP extracts user attributes such as name, email, and group.
  9. Session Creation:SP creates a session for user, allowing user to access SP application. In the SP-initiated flow, the user initiates the request to access the SP application, and the SP sends a SAML request to the IDP for authentication and authorization. This flow is typically used in situations where the user needs to access a specific resource or application directly.
What is SAML and How SAML Authentication Works (2)

SAML Use cases

Workforce SSO

SAML is very popular into Workforce SSO, All the Workforce SSO providers support SAML so it can be integrated with internal tools either SaaS or on-prem. Using workfoce SSO companies can control their employees accesses from a single dashboard, onboarding, management and offbording. As SAML is well defined protocol so it’s highly secure and flexible which fits in enterprise ecosystem for identity use case. All the enterprises and mid-sized businesses use Workforce SSO.

B2B SaaS SSO

When we say that all the Enterprise and mid-sized use Workforce SSO means all B2B SaaS solution who deal or want to deal in this segment means they require to integrate SAML so their customer’s Workforce SSO can be integrated with their system. All the B2B SaaS platform these days supports integration of Workforce SSO.

Example SAML Response

<samlp:Response ID=”_257f9d9e9fa14962c0803903a6ccad931245264310738″

IssueInstant=”2009-06-17T18:45:10.738Z” Version=”2.0″>

<saml:Issuer Format=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:nameid-format:entity”>

https://www.salesforce.com

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</saml:Issuer>

<samlp:Status>

<samlp:StatusCode Value=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:status:Success”/>

</samlp:Status>

<saml:Assertion ID=”_3c39bc0fe7b13769cab2f6f45eba801b1245264310738″

IssueInstant=”2009-06-17T18:45:10.738Z” Version=”2.0″>

<saml:Issuer Format=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:nameid-format:entity”>

https://www.salesforce.com

</saml:Issuer>

<saml:Signature>

<saml:SignedInfo>

<saml:CanonicalizationMethod Algorithm=”http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n#”/&gt;

<saml:SignatureMethod Algorithm=”http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#rsa-sha1″/&gt;

<saml:Reference URI=”#_3c39bc0fe7b13769cab2f6f45eba801b1245264310738″>

<saml:Transforms>

<saml:Transform Algorithm=”http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#enveloped-

signature”/>

<saml:Transform Algorithm=”http://www.w3.org/2001/10/xml-exc-c14n#”&gt;

<ec:InclusiveNamespaces PrefixList=”ds saml xs”/>

</saml:Transform>

</saml:Transforms>

<saml:DigestMethod Algorithm=”http://www.w3.org/2000/09/xmldsig#sha1″/&gt;

<saml:DigestValue>vzR9Hfp8d16576tEDeq/zhpmLoo=

(Video) How SAML Authentication Works

</saml:DigestValue>

</saml:Reference>

</saml:SignedInfo>

<saml:SignatureValue>

AzID5hhJeJlG2llUDvZswNUrlrPtR7S37QYH2W+Un1n8c6kTC

Xr/lihEKPcA2PZt86eBntFBVDWTRlh/W3yUgGOqQBJMFOVbhK

M/CbLHbBUVT5TcxIqvsNvIFdjIGNkf1W0SBqRKZOJ6tzxCcLo

9dXqAyAUkqDpX5+AyltwrdCPNmncUM4dtRPjI05CL1rRaGeyX

3kkqOL8p0vjm0fazU5tCAJLbYuYgU1LivPSahWNcpvRSlCI4e

Pn2oiVDyrcc4et12inPMTc2lGIWWWWJyHOPSiXRSkEAIwQVjf

Qm5cpli44Pv8FCrdGWpEE0yXsPBvDkM9jIzwCYGG2fKaLBag==

</saml:SignatureValue>

<saml:KeyInfo>

<saml:X509Data>

<saml:X509Certificate>

MIIEATCCAumgAwIBAgIBBTANBgkqhkiG9w0BAQ0FADCBgzELM

[Certificate truncated for readability…]

</saml:X509Certificate>

</saml:X509Data>

</saml:KeyInfo>

</saml:Signature>

<saml:Subject>

<saml:NameID Format=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:1.1:nameid-format:unspecified”>

(Video) What is SAML? | How does Microsoft Azure AD SAML work? | SAML vs OAuth

saml01@salesforce.com

</saml:NameID>

<saml:SubjectConfirmation Method=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:cm:bearer”>

<saml:SubjectConfirmationData NotOnOrAfter=”2009-06-17T18:50:10.738Z”

Recipient=”https://login.salesforce.com”/&gt;

</saml:SubjectConfirmation>

</saml:Subject>

<saml:Conditions NotBefore=”2009-06-17T18:45:10.738Z” NotOnOrAfter=”2009-06-

17T18:50:10.738Z”>

<saml:AudienceRestriction>

<saml:Audience>https://saml.salesforce.com</saml:Audience&gt;

</saml:AudienceRestriction>

</saml:Conditions>

<saml:AuthnStatement AuthnInstant=”2009-06-17T18:45:10.738Z”>

<saml:AuthnContext>

<saml:AuthnContextClassRef>urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:ac:classes:unspecified

</saml:AuthnContextClassRef>

</saml:AuthnContext>

</saml:AuthnStatement>

<saml:AttributeStatement>

<saml:Attribute Name=”portal_id”>

<saml:AttributeValue xsi:type=”xs:anyType”>060D00000000SHZ

</saml:AttributeValue>

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</saml:Attribute>

<saml:Attribute Name=”organization_id”>

<saml:AttributeValue xsi:type=”xs:anyType”>00DD0000000F7L5

</saml:AttributeValue>

</saml:Attribute>

<saml:Attribute Name=”ssostartpage”

NameFormat=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:attrname-format:unspecified”>

<saml:AttributeValue xsi:type=”xs:anyType”>

http://www.salesforce.com/security/saml/saml20-gen.jsp

</saml:AttributeValue>

</saml:Attribute>

<saml:Attribute Name=”logouturl”

NameFormat=”urn:oasis:names:tc:SAML:2.0:attrname-format:uri”>

<saml:AttributeValue xsi:type=”xs:string”>

http://www.salesforce.com/security/del_auth/SsoLogoutPage.html

</saml:AttributeValue>

</saml:Attribute>

</saml:AttributeStatement>

</saml:Assertion>

</samlp:Response>

Conclusion

SAML solves the Security and User experience problems with greater flexibility, it is defacto solution when we think about the identity exchange between two parties. SAML’s strength is it’s well define specification which make this fir for most of the use canse of Identity Federation and SSO. SAML is not that popular in B2C applications, JWT, OAuth and OIDC are well known protocols into B2C.

Article Source: https://ssojet.com/blog/what-is-saml-and-how-saml-authentication-works/

(Video) SAML 2.0: Technical Overview

FAQs

What is SAML and How SAML Authentication Works? ›

SAML works by exchanging user information, such as logins, authentication state, identifiers, and other relevant attributes between the identity and service provider. As a result, it simplifies and secures the authentication process as the user only needs to log in once with a single set of authentication credentials.

What is SAML and how does it work? ›

Security Assertion Markup Language, or SAML, is a standardized way to tell external applications and services that a user is who they say they are. SAML makes single sign-on (SSO) technology possible by providing a way to authenticate a user once and then communicate that authentication to multiple applications.

What is SAML and why is it used? ›

Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) is an open federation standard that allows an identity provider (IdP) to authenticate users and then pass an authentication token to another application known as a service provider (SP).

What is the difference between SSO and SAML? ›

SAML enables SSO by defining how organizations can offer both authentication and authorization services as part of their infrastructure access strategy. As an open standard, SAML can be implemented by a wide variety of identity and access management (IAM) vendors.

Why use SAML for authentication? ›

Benefits of SAML Authentication

Increased Security — SAML provides a single point of authentication, which happens at a secure identity provider. Then, SAML transfers the identity information to the service providers. This form of authentication ensures that credentials are only sent to the IdP directly.

What are the four components of SAML? ›

SAML's standards provide a request/response for exchanging XML messages between these roles. The standard specifies four main components: profiles, assertions, protocol, and binding.

What are the basic concepts of SAML? ›

SAML works by exchanging user information, such as logins, authentication state, identifiers, and other relevant attributes between the identity and service provider. As a result, it simplifies and secures the authentication process as the user only needs to log in once with a single set of authentication credentials.

What protocol does SAML use? ›

SAML is an XML-based authentication protocol in which Identity Providers (IdP) -- entities that manage and store user credentials -- exchange digitally signed XML documents (SAML Assertions) allowing an end-user to access a **Service Provider **(SP), such as the collection of apps that you use every day at work or a ...

How is SAML different from LDAP? ›

The difference between SAML and LDAP is that SAML is designed for cloud-based connections using only an IdP and SP to communicate user data. LDAP, however, is typically used for accessing on-premises resources by installing a client on the user's device to connect with a directory service.

What is the difference between SSL and SAML? ›

For SSL, the certificate file is used to encrypt traffic. For SAML, the certificate is used for authentication.

Can SAML be used for authorization? ›

SAML implements a secure method of passing user authentications and authorizations between the identity provider and service providers. When a user logs into a SAML enabled application, the service provider requests authorization from the appropriate identity provider.

Is SAML obsolete? ›

SAML 2.0 was introduced in 2005 and remains the current version of the standard. The previous version, 1.1, is now largely deprecated.

What is the difference between SAML and oauth2? ›

The primary difference between SAML and OAuth is that SAML generally facilitates exchange of a single user's authentication and authorization data across secure domains. In contrast, OAuth typically works on behalf of a specific application to share user information on a limited basis with other applications.

What are the disadvantages of SAML? ›

Cons: Password Storage – If you store the user passwords in your database instead of using SAML, you will need to find a way to keep those passwords secure. Otherwise, if attackers managed to gain access, they could sign in as any of the users whose passwords they know.

What components are needed for SAML authentication? ›

SAML has the following main components:
  • Client. The user trying to authenticate into a web-based application.
  • Identity Provider (IdP) The server or authorization authority that the client ultimately authenticates with. ...
  • Service Provider (SP) ...
  • Identity Management Service/Single Sign-On (IDM/SSO) Service.
Jun 5, 2020

Is SAML only used for SSO? ›

Both applications can be used for web single sign on (SSO), but SAML tends to be specific to a user, while OAuth tends to be specific to an application. The two are not interchangeable, so instead of an outright comparison, we'll discuss how they work together.

What language does SAML use? ›

SAML is implemented with the Extensible Markup Language (XML) standard for sharing data. It provides a framework for implementing single sign-on (SSO) and other federated identity systems.

What port does SAML use? ›

The default port number is 9444.

What encryption is used in SAML? ›

Azure AD uses AES-256 to encrypt the SAML assertion data.

What is the difference between SAML and Okta? ›

Okta acts as the SAML IdP and uses SSO and MFA to authenticate the user. Okta returns an assertion to the client applications through the end user's browser. The client applications validate the returned assertion and allow the user access to the client application.

What is the difference between SAML and open ID? ›

OpenID lacks user authorization data (such as permissions) and focuses primarily on identity assertion. SAML is an identity data exchange and is very feature-rich. Authentication is decentralized with OpenID. SAML uses assertions versus the OpenID and OAuth architecture of ID tokens.

Does SAML require SSL? ›

HTTPS is required by default to configure SAML. As the SAML protocol is browser based both the product and the Identity Provider must use HTTPS (rather than HTTP), to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and capturing XML documents with SAML assertions.

Is SAML an Active Directory? ›

A SAML 2.0 identity provider (IDP) can take many forms, one of which is a self-hosted Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) server. ADFS is a service provided by Microsoft as a standard role for Windows Server that provides a web login using existing Active Directory credentials.

What certificates are used in SAML? ›

SAML Signing and Encryption Certificates provide additional security during HarvardKey Authentication for applications that use the SAML authentication protocol. SAML signing and encryption uses public keys, or certificates, to verify data sent between the Service Provider (SP) and Harvard Identity Provider (IdP).

Is Kerberos the same as SAML? ›

SAML is just a standard data format for exchanging authentication data. You would typically use it for a web SSO (single sign on). Kerberos is used in an enterprise LAN typically. Kerberos requires that the user it is authenticating is in the kerberos domain.

How do I know if SAML is enabled? ›

To view a SAML response in Chrome
  1. Press F12 to start the Developer Tools console.
  2. Select the Network tab, and then select Preserve log in the upper left of the Developer Tools window.
  3. Reproduce the issue.

Is SAML a federated authentication? ›

SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language) is a protocol that you can use to perform federated single sign-on from identity providers to service providers. In federated single sign-on, users authenticate at identity provider. Service providers consume the identity information asserted by identity providers.

Is SAML using LDAP? ›

Unfortunately, no. LDAP cannot be directly replaced with SAML. This is because SAML was developed to interact with cloud-based servers and apps, whereas LDAP was developed for on-site authentication. They provide very different methods of securing the authentication process.

How many versions of SAML are there? ›

As a protocol, SAML has three versions: SAML 1.0, SAML 1.1, and SAML 2.0.

Is Google a SAML provider? ›

When you use SSO for Cloud Identity or Google Workspace, your external IdP is the SAML IdP and Google is the SAML service provider. Google implements SAML 2.0 HTTP POST binding. This binding specifies how authentication information is exchanged between the SAML IdP and SAML service provider.

Should I use SAML or OpenID? ›

OpenID is simpler to use and implement because there is no XML language. SAML uses the XML format for data processing. However, the data processing in the SAML is complex because it uses the XML format. Data with OIDC is transmitted in the JSON format that is easier to understand and process.

Does SAML use tokens? ›

Security Assertions Markup Language (SAML) tokens are XML representations of claims. By default, SAML tokens Windows Communication Foundation (WCF) uses in federated security scenarios are issued tokens. SAML tokens carry statements that are sets of claims made by one entity about another entity.

What is the difference between SAML and JWT? ›

SAML is independent of OAuth, relying on an exchange of messages to authenticate in XML SAML format, as opposed to JWT. It is more commonly used to help enterprise users sign in to multiple applications using a single login.

What is the validity period of SAML? ›

The default validity period is up to 5 minutes before and no more than 10 minutes after the message was created.

Does Microsoft use SAML? ›

In this article. The Microsoft identity platform uses the SAML 2.0 and other protocols to enable applications to provide a single sign-on (SSO) experience to their users.

What is the maximum size of SAML? ›

The default is 1024, which commonly can be increased to 4096 or more. However, if the value is too big, the data transfer buffer can overflow, and the default value will be used as a value.

Is there a tool to test SAML? ›

About SAML tracer

After you complete the SAML configuration, you can test your implementation using SAML tracer. SAML tracer is an add-on in Firefox and very useful when troubleshooting SAML for Service Provider-initiated flows (SP-initiated) or Identity Provider-initiated flows (IdP-initiated).

What is the difference between SAML and OAuth? ›

The primary difference between SAML and OAuth is that SAML generally facilitates exchange of a single user's authentication and authorization data across secure domains. In contrast, OAuth typically works on behalf of a specific application to share user information on a limited basis with other applications.

Is SAML the same as Active Directory? ›

While SAML is an identity provider, ADFS is a service provider. A SAML 2.0 Identity Provider (IdP) can take multiple forms, one of which is a self hosted Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS) server.

What are the different types of SAML protocols? ›

The three distinct types of SAML Assertions are authentication, attribute, and authorization decisions.

Does SAML require HTTPS? ›

HTTPS is required by default to configure SAML. As the SAML protocol is browser based both the product and the Identity Provider must use HTTPS (rather than HTTP), to prevent man-in-the-middle attacks and capturing XML documents with SAML assertions.

What port does SAML authentication use? ›

The default port number is 9444.

Can SAML handle authorization? ›

Overview. A Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML) authorization assertion contains proof that a certain user has been authorized to access a specified resource. Typically, such assertions are issued by a SAML Policy Decision Point (PDP) when a client requests access to a specified resource.

Does SAML replace LDAP? ›

LDAP cannot be directly replaced with SAML. This is because SAML was developed to interact with cloud-based servers and apps, whereas LDAP was developed for on-site authentication. They provide very different methods of securing the authentication process.

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